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Critical Component Wear in Heavy Duty Engines
Carbon Nanowalls. Mineo Hiramatsu. How to write a great review. The review must be at least 50 characters long. The title should be at least 4 characters long. Combustion chamber design Important soot control measure Combustion chamber design changes are commonly used to offset increases in soot emissions when measures are taken to limit NOx emissions.
In many cases, improvements enhance mixing late in the combustion process to improve soot burn-out. Positive Ignition SI Engines Fuel injection Fuel consumption and particulate emissions The shift from port injection to gasoline direct injection GDI was driven by the use of engine downsizing to meet fuel consumption and CO 2 requirements.
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GDI engines have a higher tendency to produce small particle emissions that can be partially offset by refinements in fuel injection system design. Intake boosting Fuel consumption Enabler for engine downsizing and reduced fuel consumption and CO 2 emissions. Variable valve actuation Various Some examples include: variable valve timing is an important measure to reduce cold start HCs. Variable valve lift enables throttleless operation and improved efficiency. Cylinder deactivation reduces part load pumping losses and improves efficiency.
Variable valve timing enables Miller cycle operation for reduced pumping losses. Lean burn Fuel consumption Lean burn can reduce pumping losses, heat transfer and improve working fluid characteristics to provide higher efficiency. Introduces the need for expensive NOx aftertreatment technologies. Combustion Fuel consumption Advanced combustion concepts can improve efficiency through faster combustion and lower heat losses.
Modern approaches focus mainly on reducing fuel consumption. In SI engines, EGR is an alternative to fuel enrichment at high loads to reduce knock propensity and lower exhaust temperature at high power. At part load conditions, it can reduce pumping losses.
Limiting the content of catalyst poisons e. Alternative fuels Primary impact is life-cycle CO 2 emissions Limited criteria emission reduction potential from modern engines with full range of aftertreatment for NOx and PM. In some cases, lower operating cost is a major consideration e. Demand can often be driven by government incentives or mandates. Fuel additives Various Small direct emission effect with modern engines and high quality fuels.